Soft Tissue Thermodynamics Before, During, and After Cold Pack Therapy
This study examines the effects of icing periods to determine minimum cooling time for a measurable & consistent decrease in bone metabolism & blood flow in the knee.
Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise. 34(1):45-50, Jan. 2002.
ENWEMEKA, CHUKUKA S.; ALLEN, CHRIS; AVILA, PATRICK; BINA, JASON; KONRADE, JASON; MUNNS, STEPHEN
Cold pack therapy produces significant temperature falls in cutaneous and subcutaneous superficial tissues directly changing the temperature of tissue at more than 2.0 cm below the skin.